1 Then he commanded the steward of his house, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack, 2 and put my cup, the silver cup, in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, with his money for the grain.” And he did as Joseph told him. 3 As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away with their donkeys. 4 They had gone only a short distance from the city. Now Joseph said to his steward, “Up, follow after the men, and when you overtake them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid evil for good? 5 Is it not from this that my lord drinks, and by this that he practices divination? You have done evil in doing this.’”
-”practices divination” implies sorcery as divination means to predict the future. There is no reason to believe Joseph himself did this as he is presented as a very righteous man throughout all the bible that he is mentioned but he could have either lead the Egyptians to believe this as a way of fitting into their culture or he could simply be making this up right now for his brother’s sake. This would have put even more weight on the matter because what is one silver cup, but if it is a “special, magical”cup, suddenly the stakes become deadly. There probably could be no greater offense than a foreigner stealing a religious artifact.
6 When he overtook them, he spoke to them these words. 7 They said to him, “Why does my lord speak such words as these? Far be it from your servants to do such a thing! 8 Behold, the money that we found in the mouths of our sacks we brought back to you from the land of Canaan. How then could we steal silver or gold from your lord’s house? 9 Whichever of your servants is found with it shall die, and we also will be my lord’s servants.” 10 He said, “Let it be as you say: he who is found with it shall be my servant, and the rest of you shall be innocent.”
-Joseph must know his brother’s well because it seems he knew that they would say whoever is found with it shall die. This was something Jacob himself said when Rachel stole Laban’s household god’s not realizing that Rachel, the one he loved the most, was the one who had them. History is repeating itself again.
11 Then each man quickly lowered his sack to the ground, and each man opened his sack. 12 And he searched, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest. And the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack. 13 Then they tore their clothes, and every man loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.
-Their sorrow was so great that they tore their clothes. This is an outward sign of grief first mentioned when their father tore his clothes upon hearing of Joseph’s supposed death. Benjamin being found with the cup meant his death and that surely meant their father’s death to if he ever heard of it. But all of them would be going into slavery and would never see their own children and families again assuming they were left back at home. Joseph’s actions have driven his brother’s sorrow so low that they felt like they were nothing, had no control, and wanted to die themselves.
14 When Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house, he was still there. They fell before him to the ground. 15 Joseph said to them, “What deed is this that you have done? Do you not know that a man like me can indeed practice divination?” 16 And Judah said, “What shall we say to my lord? What shall we speak? Or how can we clear ourselves? God has found out the guilt of your servants; behold, we are my lord’s servants, both we and he also in whose hand the cup has been found.” 17 But he said, “Far be it from me that I should do so! Only the man in whose hand the cup was found shall be my servant. But as for you, go up in peace to your father.”
-This was their test, to see if they would sacrifice the favored son to save themselves. Joseph was seeing if his brother’s have changed and learned their lesson.
18 Then Judah went up to him and said, “Oh, my lord, please let your servant speak a word in my lord’s ears, and let not your anger burn against your servant, for you are like Pharaoh himself. 19 My lord asked his servants, saying, ‘Have you a father, or a brother?’ 20 And we said to my lord, ‘We have a father, an old man, and a young brother, the child of his old age. His brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother’s children, and his father loves him.’ 21 Then you said to your servants, ‘Bring him down to me, that I may set my eyes on him.’ 22 We said to my lord, ‘The boy cannot leave his father, for if he should leave his father, his father would die.’ 23 Then you said to your servants, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you shall not see my face again.’ 24 “When we went back to your servant my father, we told him the words of my lord. 25 And when our father said, ‘Go again, buy us a little food,’ 26 we said, ‘We cannot go down. If our youngest brother goes with us, then we will go down. For we cannot see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’ 27 Then your servant my father said to us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons. 28 One left me, and I said, “Surely he has been torn to pieces,” and I have never seen him since. 29 If you take this one also from me, and harm happens to him, you will bring down my gray hairs in evil to Sheol.’ 30 “Now therefore, as soon as I come to your servant my father, and the boy is not with us, then, as his life is bound up in the boy’s life, 31 as soon as he sees that the boy is not with us, he will die, and your servants will bring down the gray hairs of your servant our father with sorrow to Sheol. 32 For your servant became a pledge of safety for the boy to my father, saying, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, then I shall bear the blame before my father all my life.’ 33 Now therefore, please let your servant remain instead of the boy as a servant to my lord, and let the boy go back with his brothers. 34 For how can I go back to my father if the boy is not with me? I fear to see the evil that would find my father.”
-What a beautiful transformation we see from Judah. This man helped to sell his brother after intending to kill him, has seen prostitutes (or least we know he attempted to the one time), and seems to not be very righteous at all. But now he is willing to sacrifice himself to save his brother and his father from grief. Judah is offering himself as a slave for someone else. In the opening of the next chapter, we see how Joseph recognizes this and the emotional effect it has on him as well.